Posts Tagged ‘pr’

It was wonderful getting to work with my J452 class. All class members featured above gave permission to have a class photo used on this blog; however, only a few students chose to have their blogs highlighted.

Anna Reilly, an avid Pinterest user, presents five best practices for using Pinterest. As she explains, “Pinterest is a website where you can create theme-based image collections through social photo sharing. …In terms of PR, Pinterest can be a great curation tool for visual thinkers to express their plans and ideas for customers and clients.”

Jerica Pitts, who is passionate about health communication, discusses the Pink Ribbon Sundays Program as a model for effective health outreach programs that are designed for African-American and Hispanic women. This is a must-read post for anyone interested in health communication who does not know about the pink Sundays case study.

Shannon August, who is committed to using public relations to make a difference in people’s lives, shares tips for creating an outstanding organizational culture. She provides concrete examples from her summer internship at AMN Healthcare.

Thanks for reading, and best wishes for the new year.

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Faced with more tactics than I could fit into a class, I surveyed my winter students and discovered that most of them were especially interested in having a video assignment. I had wanted to try out a video assignment since my University of Georgia colleague Kaye Sweetser shared her video assignment, best practices for video, video secrets for success by PR innovator Paull Young and student examples.

Thanks to Kaye’s inspiration and student interest, below is the assignment I created.

Assignment Handout
You will work as part of a team to write a script and publicity plan for a video that lasts between one and three minutes.

The purpose of the video is to promote the study of public relations at the University of Oregon. The primary audience is high school students, particularly students who live in the Northwest and enjoy writing. The video has to be appropriate for parents and has to be a video that the University could use if you wanted to submit it for approval.

In the video, you will need to concisely establish

  • What public relations is
  • Why people should pursue it as a career
  • Why people should study public relations at the University of Oregon

Remember to cite your sources and avoid using copyrighted material. The video has to be entertaining and informative.

Track A: Creating the Video
Write a script and publicity plan for the video. Shoot the video, edit it and submit a final version to me. With this track, you will take on one of the following roles. You will also support your team in the completion of their roles.

The producer manages the team, keeps the project on track, coordinates details for filming, recruits talent with the director and creates the publicity plan. In addition, this person obtains a video release waiver from all of the people who appear in the video.

Deliverables include the publicity plan and the schedule for the shooting, including time, talent and locations.

The director is responsible for directing talent and operating the camera. This person also recruits the talent with the producer. This person is responsible for the quality of the video. In addition, this person shares the editing workload with the editor.

The deliverable is the final video.

The writer conducts research and writes the conceptual idea. If the writer is an artist, a storyboard could be created as well. The writer also creates the script.

The deliverables include a summary of research and ideas that will be pitched to the team, in addition to the script.

The editor is responsible for editing the video and completing post-production. This person shares the workload with the director and gets final say over editing decisions. The end of the video needs to say something like “Produced as an assignment in a public relations class at the University of Oregon,” and it needs to include credits.

The deliverable for the editor is the final video.

Track A Points
This assignment is worth 15 points. Ten of the 15 points are based on the quality of your work. Everyone in the group receives the same score for the 10 points.

The remaining five points are based on your individual contributions to the group and your ability to work effectively with your team (e.g., by meeting deadlines, producing quality work, being fun to work with and keeping meetings on track). You will submit an evaluation of yourself and your teammates.

Track B: Pitching the Idea and Writing Another Tactic
Write a script and publicity plan for the video. Pitch the idea to me as a formal business presentation. With this track, there are no individual roles. Instead, you will work as a team to do the following things:

  • Conduct research
  • Create a fact sheet or memo that conveys your research
  • Write the script
  • Pitch your idea as part of a formal business presentation
  • Produce a publicity plan

You will also work individually to create an additional tactic of your choice, such as a shareholder letter, fundraising letter or podcast.

Track B Points
This assignment is worth 15 points.

The research memo, script, presentation and pitch are worth 10 points. Five of the 10 points are based on the quality of your work. Everyone in the group receives the same score for the five points. The other five points are based on your ability to work effectively with your team (e.g., by meeting deadlines, producing quality work, being fun to work with and keeping meetings on track). You will submit an evaluation of yourself and your teammates.

The remaining five points are based on the additional tactic you produce, which is due on Tuesday, Feb. 22. If you choose track B, please add the tactic you’re producing to your course schedule as an assignment due on Feb. 22.

Memo Due Thursday, Jan. 6
Explain the track you would like to choose through a memo.

If you choose track A, list the four positions in your order of preference, beginning with the position you would like the most. Explain any relevant background you have (e.g., editing skills for the editor position, organization skills for the producer position).

If you choose track B, indicate which additional tactic you are interested in creating (e.g., fundraising letter, shareholder letter or podcast). You can change tactics later if you would like.

You can either apply as an individual, and I’ll place you on a team, or you can apply as a team. A team has four members. If you apply as a team for track A, each person should apply for a different role, and each team member’s memo should include a list of your teammates.

Below is the format for the memo.

To: Tiffany Gallicano
From: Your name
Date: Thursday, Jan. 6
Subject: Video assignment role

Single space your document and skip a line of space between paragraphs. Do not indent. Write short paragraphs like the ones used in this assignment description. The memo should be no longer than one page.

This memo counts towards your participation points.

Memo to Track B
When returning memos to track B students, I distributed the following memo to them:

To: Diva Designers (insert student group name)
From: Tiffany Gallicano
Date: Feb. 3, 2011
Re: Finalist for SOJC Video

Thank you for your response to our RFP. You have been selected as a finalist for the PR video project.

Please meet me at 2 p.m. in Allen 302 on Thursday, Feb. 17, for a presentation of your ideas.

Your presentation should include the following components:

  • Situation analysis (why the video is needed)
  • Purpose of the video
  • Research that informed your ideas for the video
  • Video concept
  • Publicity plan
  • Capabilities

There will be a question and answer session following your presentation.

Selection Criteria

  • Quality of content, including creativity
  • Persuasive delivery, including effective use of visual aids
  • Ability of agency to perform the proposed work

Video Instruction
I brought in a guest speaker from the University of Oregon’s multimedia team to provide tips for shooting video. Here are a few of the most important tips for beginners by our expert speaker, Mike Majdic:

  • Make sure each person in the video knows where to look. Mixing between looking at the interviewer and looking at the camera looks amateur. In most cases, you’ll want all people in the video to not look at the camera.
  • Provide plenty of cushion for editing by pausing before and after questions.
  • Talking heads is boring, so cut to footage during this time. There is nothing more interesting than people, so include people in the footage.

My students have also shared tips; here is a blog post about shooting quality video by Taylor Long, and here is a blog post about video interviewing tips by Jesse Davis.

It was also valuable to spend a half hour watching and critiquing videos as a class. There are plenty of examples of university videos to critique on YouTube. We also discussed the importance of having a concept. Seeing the examples gave students ideas of what it means to have a concept for a video.

For the script, I had them follow the screenwriting template available here.

The students presented their videos to a panel of judges, including our communications director for UO’s School of Journalism and Communication, Andrea Kowalski, and the public relations faculty. Andrea surprised our students with free SOJC shirts after the presentation. Our director of Web Communications at UO, Zack Barnett, added both videos to our University of Oregon YouTube channel.

Final Product
Below are the two videos my student teams created.

Producer: Claire Tonneson, http://clairetonneson.wordpress.com, http://www.visualcv.com/pqqbhk1

Director and writer: Jesse Davis, http://jedavis13.wordpress.com, http://visualcv.com/users/237123-jesseleedavis/cvs/279473

Writer: Teeona Wilson, http://teeonawilson.wordpress.com, http://www.wix.com/teewilson08/trw

Editor: Taylor Long, http://tlong88.wordpress.com, http://www.visualcv.com/tlong88

Editor: Sarah Kirsch, http://sarahkirsch.wordpress.com, http://sarahkirsch.wordpress.com/portfolio

Producer: Liz Johnston, http://www.liz-john.moonfruit.com, http://thelegosofmylife.wordpress.com

Director: Shasta Smith, http://professionalswanted.wordpress.com, http://shastasmith.foliotek.me

Writer: Sarah Sullivan, http://sarahaasullivan.wordpress.com, http://www.wix.com/ssulliv1/sarahaasullivan

Editor: Stephen Hoshaw, http://learningpr.wordpress.com, http://www.visualcv.com/pu0j0p0

Editor: James Watkins, http://prprone.wordpress.com, http://www.visualcv.com/puo9290

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Krista Detwiler blogs about 17 key things she learned during her Seattle PR tours to companies such as Microsoft and Starbucks; the tour was organized by AHPR, University of Oregon’s student-run public relations agency.

Katie Spellman creates a Stanley CSR Cup Final for the final four teams that competed for the Stanley Cup. Find out which team she chooses for the CSR Cup!

Sports fans will also want to read Paige Landsem’s blog post about the Seattle Mariners’ campaign to make fans feel like royalty, and she includes academic research about the effect of promotions on game attendance.

Niloo Mirani gets us up to speed about QR Codes and explores whether QR codes are in our digital future.

Melodie Seble provides tips based on one of my favorite Facebook campaigns, which is by Milk-Bone.

Kayla Albrecht shares an innovative nonprofit Facebook campaign and identifies reasons why the campaign was effective.

Angela Allison analyzes how a Facebook campaign by The Boys & Girls Clubs of America measures up against the best practices she has observed in Facebook campaigns.

Nicole Kramer shares a clever campaign by Honest Tea to identify the “Most Honest City in America.”

Sierra Baldwin wrote a blog post for students considering work in nonprofit PR that establishes key distinctions of doing public relations work for a nonprofit.

Maggie Dieringer shares what she learned about cultivating relationships with volunteers based on her interview with the volunteer manager for the Portland division of the Oregon Humane Society.

Allie Deane shares a story from NPR’s month-long series about public relations by highlighting the career of Howard Bragman, who has helped celebrities transition into openly gay lifestyles.

Page Fitzsimmons applauds the strategic move by the Obama camp to mock questions about the president’s birthplace in a comedic way that raises money for the re-election campaign.

Dalal Abou-Jamous shares the 10 myths of fundraising she learned from Matthew Ennis’ blog.

Stacy Sumoge discusses important reputation management tips that were inspired by the latest Facebook public relations blunder.

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Social Media Education Trend

Out: Requiring students to sign up for various social media accounts (e.g., Twitter, delicious, PR Open Mic, LinkedIn) and jump through required hoops for participation (e.g., friend this many people, tweet this many times).

In: Designing a flexible assignment that enables students to create their own social media plans.

Inspired by Karen Russell’s experiment, Donna Davis, Kelli Matthews and I decided to try something new in our J452 classes this winter: a choose your own adventure PR plan.

This project enables students to choose the learning activities that would be most meaningful to them. My version of the project is below. Educators, students and practitioners, your feedback and ideas are welcome. As with any first assignment, I’m confident that opportunities for improvement will be discovered as we go.

Personal Public Relations Plan and Report
You will create and implement a personal public relations plan that is tailored to your interests and then update the plan by putting it in the past tense and by reporting your results at the end of the quarter.

You will never be required to publicly participate on the Internet in our class. You can design private goals if you would like. Feel free to see me for help.

You only need to write one of each item, provided that your plan takes on a meaningful amount of growth. You will likely have multiple items in at least some of the areas.

The plan has to include at least one social media component, and it can include offline components as well.

The goal is a generalized statement that begins with the word “to.”

In the goal area, state what you would like to achieve.

Each objective must reflect the following guidelines:

  • Specify one outcome (only tackle one outcome at a time)
  • Be measurable (will you realistically be able to measure the objective you have written when you get to the evaluation component of this plan?)
  • Be obtainable and a meaningful achievement
  • Refer to what will be done rather than how it will be done
  • Include a date by which the objective will be accomplished

The deadlines for your objectives can be any time between March 3 and four months after your graduation.

Your strategies broadly explain how you plan to accomplish your objectives.

The tactics explain the details of the strategies. Depending on your plan, you might want to consider these items:

  • delicious (enables you to save useful blog posts for quick reference prior to a job interview and as an employee, helps you position yourself as a content expert because you can quickly reference information on the topics important to you, helps you compensate for areas you don’t know as well by saving information you expect you’ll need as an employee)
  • Google Alert (notifies you of when your name is mentioned on the Internet, so you can listen and respond when people write about you)
  • Google Reader (allows you to subscribe to potential employers and thought leaders in PR, including experts in your area of specialization, and engage with them in conversation)
  • LinkedIn (expands your digital footprint, enables you to see if you have indirect connections to people you want to work for, so you can leverage your connections)
  • Twitter (expands your digital footprint, helps you position yourself as a content expert by listening to others and by tweeting regularly on a particular subject, allows you to network with potential employers by engaging in conversations with them and retweeting some of their tweets and blog posts, also helps you network by participating in relevant hashtags and live chats – specify which ones if you use this in your plan)
  • Blog posts (expands your digital footprint, helps you position yourself as a content expert by blogging regularly about a particular subject)
  • Blog comments (expands your digital footprint, drives traffic to your blog, enables you to network with industry leaders and potential employers)

We will cover these tactics prior to the deadline for the public relations plan.

Your evaluation section will address how you will measure whether you have achieved each objective.

If you set deadlines in your objectives that go longer than this quarter, include a section for short-term assessments that will be made by March 3.

Example: Personal Public Relations Plan

Goal (Loosely stated outcome)
To develop a specialization in conflict resolution.

Objectives (How you will measure your achievement of the outcome)
To write five blog posts about conflict resolution by March 3, 2011.
(This is an example of an output measurement because it’s a physical result.)

To give a presentation about conflict resolution by March 14, 2011.
(This is an example of an output measurement because it’s a physical result.)

For myself to believe that I have a solid understanding of conflict resolution by March 14, 2011.
(HT to Kelli for the outtake example. As Katie Paine explains in her “Measuring Public Relationships” book, an outtake is “how people think as a result of experiencing the outputs” (p. 3). An outcome measurement would be a behavioral result, such as having your resume personally delivered to HR by someone in the organization where you want to work.)

Strategies (How to achieve the objectives)
Conduct primary and secondary research about conflict resolution.

Tactics (Details for the strategies)
Read chapters from “Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In” by Fisher, Ury and Patton.

Read chapters from “Start With No: The Negotiating Tools That the Pros Don’t Want You to Know,” by Camp.

Read the chapter titled “Public Relations, Conflict Resolution, and Mediation” by Plowman in the book titled “The Future of Excellence in Public Relations and Communication Management” (pp. 85-102, edited by Toth).

Read “Hot Waste in Utah: Conflict in the Public Arena,” by Plowman in the academic journal titled “Journal of Public Relations Research” (volume 20, number four).

Interview a public relations practitioner who has experience with negotiating conflict.

Monitor the #conflict hashtag on Twitter at least weekly to identify cases to write about.

Read The New York Times and Drudge at least weekly to identify cases to write about.

Evaluation (How to measure whether you achieved your objectives)
This plan will be assessed by seeing whether I have written five blog posts about conflict resolution and whether I have delivered a presentation about conflict resolution. In addition, I will reflect about the extent to which I believe I have a solid understanding of conflict resolution.

This is just one example; feel free to design a different plan. Below are some other examples of goals:

  • To position myself online as a public relations practitioner with a specialization in conflict resolution. This example is more focused on a branded digital footprint than the example used previously.
  • To position myself for a public relations internship at an agency in the Northwest on the public affairs team. This type of goal could be measured in various ways, so the objective could be something like “To obtain two job interviews with Northwest agencies by May 1, 2011.” The strategies and tactics sections would then be more traditional than the example I wrote out.

Personal Public Relations Plan: Points and Deadlines
The plan is worth 10 points and is due on Thursday, Jan. 27. Type your plan in black 12-point font on a high-quality print setting.

Grading Criteria for Personal Public Relations Plan

  • How is the writing quality? Check grammar, punctuation, spelling, brevity and AP Style. I’ll follow the quantitative rubric in the syllabus.
  • Are the goals, objectives, strategies, tactics and evaluation developed according to the rules presented in this description?
  • Are the objectives meaningful and achievable?
  • Is there at least one social media component?

Personal Public Relations Plan Report: Points and Deadlines
The report (including implementation) is worth five points and is due at the beginning of your week 10 meeting with me.

Grading Criteria for Personal Public Relations Plan Report

  • How is the writing quality? Check grammar, punctuation, spelling, brevity and AP Style. I’ll follow the quantitative rubric in the syllabus.
  • Are the goals, objectives, strategies, tactics and evaluation still developed according to the rules presented in this handout?
  • Is the writing tense correct for the report?
  • Were the objectives achieved? The objectives need to be achieved for a perfect score.

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The Guardian  called the news the “biggest intelligence leak in history” and a “worldwide diplomatic crisis” for the United States.

On Sunday, Nov. 28, 2010, news organizations announced the leak of 251,287 classified diplomatic cables. These diplomatic documents, also referred to as cables, represent a sampling of the everyday communication between the State Department and 270 embassies and consulates.

These cables contain damaging information, such as the following:

  • Criticism offered by U.S. commanders, the Afghan president and local officials in Helmand of England’s military efforts in Afghanistan.
  • Alleged corruption when local officials in the United Arab Emirates found that Afghanistan’s vice president was carrying $52 million in cash.
  • Allegations that China’s Politburo hired hackers to sabotage Google’s system in China.

This is a small sample of the significant secrets that were revealed yesterday. The cables also include frankly worded messages, such as the cable in which Russian President Dmitry Medvedev (depicted as “pale and hesitant”) is labeled as playing “Robin” to Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, who is called the “Batman” in the relationship.

These cables were allegedly leaked by a low-level Army intelligence analyst to WikiLeaks, an organization designed to share official secrets. WikiLeaks publishes original source material, along with news analysis, to bring greater transparency to the world. WikiLeaks shared the illegally obtained cables with five publications: The New York Times, London’s The Guardian, Germany’s Der Spiegel, Spain’s El País, and France’s Le Monde. Each news source has been instructed to release the cables in timed stages, which WikiLeaks has organized by country or topic. This slow-drip method will keep the cables in the news for a long time.

The Public Relations Response
White House officials learned about the leaks in advance when The New York Times contacted them, shared the information the newspaper planned to reveal and asked for any statements that appeared to put lives at risk. The newspaper complied with some of the White House’s requests and shared the administration’s requests with other news organizations, as well as its own decisions about what to exclude.

With advance knowledge of the leak, U.S. ambassadors were warned and instructed to talk with their contacts about what to expect before the information comes out. It’s a smart move to get ahead of a story and to prioritize publics when doing so. As developed by Grunig and Hunt and discussed by Brad Rawlins, publics with functional linkages to an organization have high priority. A functional linkage means that a public provides input or output to the organization.

Thus, U.S. ambassadors, diplomats and intelligence operatives should be among the first to know about the leaks, and they should have the ability to talk with their contacts about the stories before they appear. There is an excellent example of part of an ambassador’s statement on The New York Times’ blog (scroll down to the statement by Cameron Munter, America’s new ambassador to Pakistan).

Crisis in the Relationship With Ambassadors
One of the many consequences of the leak is the damage to the United States’ relationship with its ambassadors, diplomats and intelligence operatives: Will future cables be safe from leaks? How can ambassadors convince contacts to trust them when there is a breakdown in trust between ambassadors and the U.S.?

Trust is based on perceptions of competence and promise keeping (see Hon & Grunig). The government will need to communicate the effectiveness of efforts to fix the security breach. It will also need to make promises to the diplomatic community and keep those promises to gradually rebuild trust. Cultivating personal relationships can also play a vital role in repairing trust.

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Photo by Jason McELweenie (deneyterrio on flickr), Attribution Creative Commons License


Mark Zuckerberg and William Randolph Hearst do not have much in common; however, each media mogul has a movie in which an actor portrays the person in an undesired way.

Hearst’s Pressure Response
Hearst attempted to buy all negatives of the film, so he could destroy them. When the RKO studio turned down the offer, Hearst banned his empire of newspapers and stations from mentioning any film made through RKO. He also banned his newspapers and stations from accepting advertising from any movie produced through RKO. (After two weeks, the ban was lifted for all RKO films except “Citizen Kane.”) Hearst blocked “Citizen Kane” from opening at Radio City Music Hall by threatening to publish a negative story about Nelson Rockefeller’s grandfather in American Weekly magazine. Many movie chains decided not to play the film because they feared Hearst’s wrath. The movie lost $150,000 in its first run. According to Variety magazine, Hearst was behind a voting block to keep Orson Welles from winning Best Picture and Best Actor awards for “Citizen Kane.”

“Citizen Kane” suffered a heavy hit from Hearst’s efforts; however, in the long run, Hearst’s attempts to extinguish the film only enhanced its significance.

Zuckerberg’s Blowing-It-Off Response
Three message points are common to the stories about Zuckerberg’s reaction to the movie.

1. “It’s a movie; it’s fun... I can promise you, this is my life so I know it’s not that dramatic. The last six years have been a lot of coding and focus and hard work, but maybe it would be fun to remember it as partying and all this crazy drama” (comment during Oprah Winfrey’s show). In another version of this message point, Zuckerberg light-heartedly characterizes the movie as fiction.

This response suggests that other people shouldn’t take the movie seriously either — it’s just fun. The response also features Zuckerberg as someone who does not take himself too seriously, a characteristic of successful politicians.

2. “We build products that 500 million people see… If 5 million people see a movie, it doesn’t really matter that much” (comment from Ben Parr’s interview).

Creating this context by focusing on audience numbers is a strategic way of framing the movie as insignificant.

3. Zuckerberg also steers the conversation to a safe area by talking about “lots of messages” he has received from people who saw the movie and feel inspired to become entrepreneurs. This gives Zuckerberg room to say something complimentary about the movie and himself.

Zuckerberg’s Little League Strategy
Zuckerberg also appeared on Oprah on the day the movie came out to announce the establishment of his foundation and his first gift of $100 million, which was given to the Newark school system. He says the timing was coincidental, which seems to insult the audience’s intelligence. This is what Jim Grunig critically referred to in his classes as the little league strategy, which occurs when an organization looks bad and decides to sponsor the little league team in hopes that this gesture will make up for things.

Is it effective? I don’t think so. Zuckerberg’s denial about the timing (even if it is authentic) is unbelievable, so people have reason to doubt his integrity. The timed date adds significance to the movie and makes it look like Zuckerberg is compensating for the film portrayals. It would have been smarter for Zuckerberg to have made the donation at a different time.

Hence, Zuckerberg’s public relations response is mostly smart: The message points are strong, but the news of his foundation and donation were poorly timed. What do you think?

Hearst Sources

Carringer, R. L. (1996). The making of Citizen Kane. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Citizen Kane. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citizen_Kane

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Windy is seeking a job with a nonprofit organization in the Portland, Ore., area where she can share her skills and passion for development and public relations. She can be reached at  linkedin.com/in/windyhovey.

She is knowledgeable about nonprofit development and social media, she is strategic, she is an excellent writer, and she has an incredible work ethic. I strongly recommend her without reservation.

By Windy Hovey

A thesis. You spend so much time planning for it, nurturing it, and making it the best it can be. When you finally set it loose in the world, you hope that all your effort and sleepless nights will provide valuable information for both scholars and practitioners. It was also  my wish that the crowning achievement of my two years in graduate school would arm me with knowledge I could apply in a nonprofit development and communications position.

Over the past three decades, scholars have built theories about how an organization can manage relationships with its publics. My study adds to this body of scholarly work by providing insight into strategies an organization uses to build relationships with its publics and outcomes for those relationships. It examines social media in the rich context of a nonprofit dance center with unique strengths and challenges in its community. Fortunately, the director and volunteers were willing to share their use of and opinions about the organization’s social media sites. By the final chapter, my academic research demonstrates a practical way for nonprofit managers to assess ROI of social media. It also presents both good and bad aspects of using social media that might surprise nonprofit managers:

  • How can an organization’s volunteers on Facebook help nonprofit managers who are limited on time and resources?
  • How might using Flickr jeopardize the outcome of an organization’s relationship with its publics?
  • What are some barriers to two-way dialog on an organization’s blog or Facebook page?
  • What roles can social media play in an organization’s strategy to be a good neighbor and community steward?

Discover answers to these questions and more by downloading my full research article — at no cost — published in the latest issue of the Public Relations Society of America Public Relations Journal.

Acknowledgments: This study’s success was secured by my thesis committee members Dr. Mark Horney, Dr. Pat Curtin, and Kelli Matthews; professors in the University of Oregon School of Journalism and Communication and the Department of Planning, Public Policy and Management; and Dr. Tiffany Derville Gallicano, who was the most marvelous graduate adviser and thesis committee chairperson in every way. They gracefully balance and blend academia and community. They are outstanding researchers and professors who prepare their students for the rapidly changing worlds of public relations and nonprofit management.

Additional sources of information: Learn even more (than you ever thought possible!) about nonprofit social media use by following Beth Kanter (@kanter) and Allison Fine (@Afine) — two excellent sources to start with.

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